The system has evolved due to a better understanding of the importance of the different parameters and increased experience leading to changes to the ratings of parameters. As a result of these advancements, the Bieniawski version was employed in this study. This scheme uses six parameters: Uniaxial compressive strength of rock material, rock quality designation RQD , spacing of discontinuities, condition of discontinuities, groundwater conditions and orientation of discontinuities.
As explained in Bieniawski , estimation of RMR is the sum of the total ratings of each of the above listed six parameters. Considering the dip angles of the joints in these high cut slopes, -5 rating adjustment for discontinuity orientations was used.
As presented in Table 6 , the discontinuity condition is the sum of joint persistence, aperture, roughness, infilling and weathering ratings. This RMR scheme has five rock mass classes determined from total ratings ranging from very poor rock to very good rock.
In order to determine the RMR for the investigated extended cut slope, the already determined values of the six parameters were substituted with their individual ratings and the rock masses range from fair to good rocks. The estimation of the RMR of the investigated rock masses are presented in Table 7.
Although the remaining cut slopes are in quartz mica schist and designated fair rocks, the quartz mica schist at locations and maintained the lowest RMR values of 43 and 44 respectively. The advantage of rock mass classification using RMR is that it incorporates geological, geometric and engineering parameters in arriving at a quantitative value of the rock mass quality. The kinematic analyses of the discontinuity sets revealed the possibility of both wedge and planar failures.
Based on the kinematic analysis of these discontinuity sets, it is anticipated that all cut slopes in this investigated area are unstable.
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Stable - The margin of stability is sufficiently high to withstand all destabilizing forces. Marginally stable - Likely to fail at some time in response to destabilizing forces reaching a certain level of activity. Actively unstable - Slopes where destabilizing forces produce continuous or intermittent movements. According to Romana and Romana et al. Whereby F 1 ranges from 1. For toppling failure, this parameter maintains 1. F4 is a correction factor that depends on the excavation method used and it is fixed empirically. As proposed by Romana , the adjustment ratings of these factors are presented in Table 8 while the classes of SMR are presented in Table 9.
The SMR was carried out using the independent joint sets from each investigated cut slope and finally applying equation 2. By analyzing the joint sets as shown in Table 10 , SMR classified the stability of slopes as completely stable, stable, partially stable, unstable and completely stable.
Using these five categories of SMR stability by Romana , this study categorized the slopes as existing in three stages: Stable, marginally stable and actively unstable as presented in Table The field and laboratory tests, computation of results and schematic representations were aimed at classifying the stability of the investigated cut slopes.
From the uniaxial compressive strength tests, it was observed that the combination of joints and foliations induced structurally controlled failures in the tested samples. RQD and RMR schemes utilized for rock mass classification yielded almost similar poor to good quality ranges for each investigated rock mass. While the RQD values range from Nealy is hyperbolically softened. Looking for minutos dating de granadilla de abona novel in all the wrong places? Looking for an old soul like myself. Review our personals for free and without registration.
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